One of the human concerns is about violence. Preparing responsible citizens demands attention to the causes and consequences of violent action. Reducing and preventing violence requires an understanding of the complexity of the phenomenon and recognition of the multiple causes of such harmful behavior. Such a basic understanding is necessary if we are to propose positive remedies and point out ways toward peaceful solutions and non-violent alternatives. Major scientific research programs need to address this complex problem. The present social circumstances add a quite timely politically-charged consideration of possible peaceful alternatives. A knowledge of aggression is not only a window to understand humanity better, but it also shows that violence involves an intensely emotional individual experience for perpetrators, victims, and for witnesses as well.

During the last quarter of the previous century and the beginning of the present one, CICA has addressed different aspects of this topic by scholars from multiple disciplines in an effort to focus a multidisciplinary attention on this important individual and societal issue. Recently we are focusing more carefully on one of its most extreme expressions, terrorism, by organizing joint conferences on the topic with the Society for Terrorism Research, as well as on the analysis and resolution of conflicts.

The international, interdisciplinary, comprehensive approach characteristic of these meetings provides a useful biosocial focus by bringing together a number of disciplines to study more effectively the complex relationship between brain and aggression. The main goal is to bridge the persistent gulf between biologically based approaches and those built on the social sciences, in the understanding that real solutions will only be found through the integration of insights reached from the interaction of many different fields and levels .

There is no human function which does not involve both the brain and social context!

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